In-situ ocean observations are crucial for understanding the ocean system, improving the quality of weather and seasonal climate forecasts, ocean models and forecasts of the state of the ocean and its ecosystems, climate research, validating satellite data and assessing the impact of management strategies. In-situ observations are direct measurements of sea water properties made using a combination of sensors on a wide range of platforms that allow autonomous observations at sea, such as profiling floats, drifting buoys, gliders, moorings, instrument-tagged marine mammals, Ships of Opportunity including commercial ships and ferries.
This vast network of in situ observations allow us to observe ocean variability at different scales at and below the surface of the ocean. Because the deployment and maintenance of ocean observing infrastructure is technically complex and costly, international collaboration and coordination are crucial to ensure global coverage, global data sharing, and interoperability of the many sensors and sampling methods that contribute to a global view. Only united worldwide effort can ensure a fit-for-purpose ocean observation system deployed by 2030 that is able to provide the measurements we need to address major societal challenges in support of the UN’s Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, UN SDG 14: life below water, the EU’s Green Deal objectives, among others.